Anderson, through a statement issued by his attorney, said the allegation is "patently false."
In the protective order filing submitted Monday, the woman said she was drinking at a bar on Nov. 16 when she met Anderson for the first time. She said she was planning to take an Uber home, but Anderson's friends "were insistent that he take" her home.
The woman said that this past weekend, through a conversation with a friend, she started "recalling images and feelings of him forcing his fingers" inside her and biting her. She said she tried to get away to put clothes on, but he followed her and asked what she was doing.
As of Tuesday morning, no charges had been filed against Anderson. He was ordered to pay the court costs in the protective order filing.
A hearing before a judge is scheduled for Dec. 18.
An Oklahoma spokesman said Monday night that the school is aware of the allegation and is gathering information.
"Mr. Anderson first learned of [the woman's] request for a civil protective order late yesterday evening," attorney Derek Chance said in the statement. "Mr. Anderson is shocked and disturbed by [the woman's] claims. Mr. Anderson did not, nor would he ever, force himself on any woman. There are undoubtedly true victims of sexual assault, for whom Mr. Anderson carries a tremendous amount of compassion. However, there are those accused of sexual assault which they unequivocally did not commit -- as is the case for Mr. Anderson."
Chance also said that the woman was trying to pursue a relationship with Anderson after Nov. 16 and filed the protective order only after he rebuffed her.
Anderson is Oklahoma's leading rusher this season with 960 yards and 11 touchdowns. The Sooners face Georgia in the College Football Playoff Semifinal at the Rose Bowl.