Whitlow suffered the injury during Saturday's 24-13 loss at No. 7 Florida. He had surgery Tuesday.
The redshirt sophomore and former SEC All-Freshman selection leads the conference with seven rushing touchdowns this season. His 544 rushing yards rank second in the SEC.
No. 12 Auburn (5-1) is off this week before traveling to Arkansas (2-3) on Oct. 19.
While Malzahn's timetable for Whitlow's recovery means the star running back will miss a pivotal Oct. 26 trip to No. 5 LSU, it does allow for the possibility that he could return in time for the final three contests of the regular season, which will feature home games against No. 3 Georgia on Nov. 16 and No. 1 Alabama on Nov. 30.