Anderson voluntarily turned himself in to police on Wednesday and was being held without bond at the Athens-Clarke County Jail.
Anderson has denied the allegation through his attorney, Steve Sadow.
"Adam is innocent of the charge brought against him and intends to vigorously defend himself in court," Sadow said in a statement. "He will seek release on bond. Once again, Adam hopes and prays that the UGA community and the public keep an open mind and afford him the presumption of innocence that the law demands."
Anderson, a senior from Rome, Georgia, was indefinitely suspended from the football team when the athletic department was notified of the allegation on Nov. 2.
According to the arrest warrant, the woman told police that she went to the early on Oct. 29. After having drinks, the woman said, she woke up some time between 5 a.m. and 6 a.m. while Anderson was raping her. She reported it to Athens-Clarke County police later that day.
On Oct. 30, Anderson played in the Bulldogs' 34-7 victory over Florida in Jacksonville, Florida. A Georgia official said the athletic department wasn't aware of the allegation when Anderson played against the Gators.
The university's Equal Opportunity Office, which handles complaints of sexual assault and Title IX violations, has opened a separate investigation into the allegation.
Anderson is one of the stars of No. 1 Georgia's defense. At the time of his suspension, he led the Bulldogs with five sacks, and was second on the team with 5.5 tackles for loss to go with 32 tackles and 14 quarterback hurries.
"We are aware of the report, and we don't comment on law enforcement matters, but I've been clear about the high standards we have for our student-athletes on and off the field," Bulldogs coach Kirby Smart said in a statement last week. "I will be working closely with our administration to ensure we cooperate fully with all law enforcement and campus protocols."
At 6-foot-5 and 230 pounds, Anderson is ranked the No. 29 prospect for the 2022 NFL draft by ESPN's Todd McShay and the No. 4 outside linebacker by ESPN's Mel Kiper Jr.