The extent of Mathews' injury is not yet known, but the initial prognosis is that he will miss the two Tests in South Africa, the first of which starts on December 26, although he will perhaps be able to return before the home Tests against England, which start on January 14.
"The physio assessed it and said it looks like I will be out of the South Africa series, but I'll get an MRI today and to confirm," Mathews told ESPNcricinfo.
As captain of the Kings franchise, Mathews played all nine of his team's LPL matches, and delivered 17.1 overs in the tournament. He sustained the injury just as he was starting his approach to the crease during his fourth over on Sunday. He left the field immediately and did not return.
"[The injury] had been building up," Mathews said. "I wanted to rest myself and wasn't able to rest myself during the tournament. Even the previous game I felt it a little bit, and then I felt it go in the last game."
Mathews has had long-standing hamstring and calf troubles, which have at times kept him out for months at a time. He had worked on his fitness over the past year, dropping several kilograms, but a likely hamstring strain has returned to put him in doubt for another tour.