The American pair fired six birdies in the alternate-shot final round at Mission Hills Blackstone course to finish at 24-under, 264 overall, notching the 24th U.S. win in the history of the tournament.
The American victory was the first since Tiger Woods and David Duval claimed the title 11 years ago. The event was annual up until 2009, and this year's tournament was the first in the new biennial format.
"We really clicked. It's fantastic to win for the U.S.," Woodland said.
The U.S. duo built a two-point lead over Germany midway through the round and after a rare slip with a bogey at the par-3 11th, the Americans responded with birdies on the next two holes and then pars the rest of the way to claim victory.
"Undoubtedly the shots on the 12 and 13th were key. It was a great moment and to shoot a par when you expected a bogey," Kuchar said.
England seemed well out of contention heading into the final day eight shots off the lead, but soared into contention. However they needed more than one of the leading teams to falter. Instead it was only Ireland that came back to the field.
World No. 2 McIlroy was well below his best, hitting some loose shots, including a putt on the 18th which would have given Ireland a share of the runner-up check. The tournament favorites had a run of misfortune, including a penalty stroke on the 6th and four bogeys on the card.