The players' union said Monday that Kershaw also won the Marvin Miller Man of the Year award.
Kershaw was 21-3 with a major league-best 1.77 ERA. He was voted the NL's outstanding pitcher and became the first player to win three Players Choice awards in one season since voting began in 1992.
Voting was conducted Sept. 16. That was before Kershaw went 0-2 with a 7.82 ERA in a pair of postseason starts against St. Louis.
The Miller award is for a player who most inspires others through his efforts on and off the field. Kershaw and his wife, Ellen, funded construction of homes for homeless children in Lusaka, Zambia.
Miami's Giancarlo Stanton was voted the NL's outstanding player and the Los Angeles Angels' Mike Trout was selected the AL's outstanding player. Seattle's Felix Hernandez was voted the AL's outstanding pitcher.