It is unclear what Philadelphia acquired in exchange for the 36-year-old Rollins, a three-time All-Star shortstop who won the National League MVP in 2007.
The trade marks the end of Rollins' historic run in Philadelphia, where he spent his entire career. Rollins is the franchise's all-time leader in hits, at-bats and doubles, and was one of the key contributors to the Phillies' World Series championship run in 2008.
The Dodgers had been seeking a veteran shortstop to replace Hanley Ramirez, who signed as a free agent last month with the Boston Red Sox, and to bridge the gap until their top position prospect, Corey Seager, is ready.
Rollins will make $11 million next season in 2015 -- the final year of his contract. He batted .243 with 17 home runs, 55 RBIs and 28 stolen bases last season.
The switch-hitting Rollins was one of baseball's top offensive shortstops in his prime and has 453 career stolen bases, the fourth-most among active players.
Seager, 20, finished last season at Double-A Chattanooga. The Dodgers' other in-house option, Erisbel Arruebarrena, is unproven as an every-day player and carries serious question marks about his ability to hit.
The Dodgers sent second baseman Dee Gordon, pitcher Dan Haren and Rojas to the Miami Marlins, and received left-hander Andrew Heaney, infielder Enrique Hernandez, reliever Chris Hatcher and minor leaguer Austin Barnes.
ESPNLosAngeles.com's Mark Saxon contributed to this report.