The school announced Thursday that Carton was taking some time away "to deal with personal matters," and that he would miss Saturday's game against Indiana.
Carton followed up with a statement released on Twitter that detailed his reasons for the absence.
"After talking to my family, teammates, and coaches I have decided it is best at this time to temporarily step away from the Ohio State basketball program," Carton wrote. "In making this decision I felt it was important to be transparent as to why I'm taking this break. I've been suffering with mental health issues for a couple years. I have been through a lot. I'm disappointed to say I'm not 100% right now. I am not doing my teammates justice if I don't work on this now. I am doing everything in my power to strengthen my mental health. I will fight for my team and buckeye nation and I will come back stronger! If you're going through mental health issues, I have learned through this that you are loved and valued."
Carton has played a key role for Ohio State as a freshman, starting three games and playing at least 18 minutes in every game. He's averaging 10.4 points and 3.0 assists so far this season.
The former ESPN 100 recruit had 17 points and three assists in the Buckeyes' last game, a 71-59 win at Northwestern on Sunday.
"D.J. remains a valued member of our program and we will continue to love and support him," Ohio State head coach Chris Holtmann said in a statement. "Please respect the family's privacy in this matter."
Ohio State has lost six of its past eight games after rising as high as No. 2 in the AP poll in December.