Edgar Martinez, Barry Larkin and Fred McGriff are also new to the ballot this year. There are 26 candidates, three more than last year, when Rickey Henderson was elected in his initial appearance and Jim Rice made it on his 15th and final try. Dawson fell 44 votes shy of the 75 percent needed and Blyleven was 67 short.
Other holdovers on the list announced Friday include Harold Baines, Don Mattingly, Jack Morris, Dale Murphy, Dave Parker, Tim Raines, Lee Smith and Alan Trammell.
McGwire, hired last month as hitting coach of the St. Louis Cardinals, is on the ballot for the fourth time. Although he hit 583 homers, eighth on the career list, he has been stigmatized since his 2005 congressional committee testimony, when he evaded answering whether he had used steroids. He received 118 votes (22 percent) in last year's vote, down from 128 in each of his first two tries.
Segui has admitted he used steroids.
Alomar, a 12-time All-Star and 10-time Gold Glove second baseman, had a .300 batting average, 210 homers and 474 steals in 17 major league seasons.
Martinez spent all 18 seasons with the Seattle Mariners, winning two AL batting titles and finishing with a .312 average and 309 homers. A seven-time All-Star, he was a designated hitter in 1,412 of 2,055 career regular-season games.
Larkin was a 12-time All-Star and three-time Gold Glove shortstop in 19 seasons, all with the Cincinnati Reds. He had a .295 career average with 198 homers and won the 1995 NL MVP award.
McGriff is tied with Lou Gehrig for 26th on the career home run with 493 and had a .284 average in 19 seasons. He led the AL in homers for the Toronto Blue Jays in 1989 and the NL for the San Diego Padres in 1992.
Reporters who have been in the BBWAA for 10 or more consecutive years are eligible to vote, and results will be announced Jan. 6. Inductions, which will include anyone elected by the Veterans Committee, are scheduled for July 25 at Cooperstown. The Veterans Committee vote will be announced Dec. 7.
The complete ballot: Roberto Alomar, Kevin Appier, Harold Baines, Bert Blyleven, Ellis Burks, Andre Dawson, Andres Galarraga, Pat Hentgen, Mike Jackson, Eric Karros, Ray Lankford, Barry Larkin, Edgar Martinez, Don Mattingly, Fred McGriff, Mark McGwire, Jack Morris, Dale Murphy, Dave Parker, Tim Raines, Shane Reynolds, David Segui, Lee Smith, Alan Trammell, Robin Ventura, Todd Zeile