The Indians made the roster move before opening a four-game series in Seattle on Thursday night. Cleveland will also be without infielder Carlos Santana for at least a few days after he was placed on the paternity list.
Atchison was 1-1 with a 5.74 ERA in 19 relief appearances for the Indians this season. This is his fifth career stint on the disabled list.
To take the open roster spots, the Indians selected the contract of outfielder Jerry Sands and recalled right-hander Austin Adams from Triple-A Columbus. Sands has split the season between Cleveland and Columbus, appearing in nine games in April with the Indians.
Adams started the season with Cleveland before being sent down. Adams appeared in three games with the Indians and 10 games at Columbus.