It would have been Rosenthal's first All-Star Game appearance in his fourth season in the majors.
Rosenthal, 25, has a 1.49 ERA with 26 saves this season for the Cardinals, who at 56-33 are in first place in the National League Central, 2½ games ahead of the Pittsburgh Pirates.
He was among six Cardinals on the National League roster. The NL lost to the American League 6-3.
The right-hander appeared in four of the Cardinals' past five games, throwing 1⅓ innings Saturday. He gave up four runs and seven hits combined in two outings at Pittsburgh going into the break.
"I really wanted to be able to pitch in the game, but I knew going into Sunday's game that if I pitched on Sunday, it would probably be harder to justify pitching today," he told MLB.com on Tuesday.
In his four seasons with the Cardinals, Rosenthal has a 2.61 ERA and 74 saves.
Information from The Associated Press was used in this report.