The 38-year-old right-hander agreed to a one-year contract, the Pirates said Friday, rejoining the team he pitched for from 2001 to 2006.
Vogelsong is guaranteed $2 million in his one-year contract and can earn $3.1 million more in performance bonuses.
Vogelsong would receive $100,000 each for 10, 12 and 14 starts under Friday's agreement and can earn $2.8 million under a points system that calls for three points for each start, two for each relief appearance of two innings or more or game finished, and one for each relief appearance less than two innings.
He would get $150,000 each for 48 and 52; $200,000 apiece for 56 and 60; $225,000 each for 64 and 68; $250,000 apiece for 72, 76, 80 and 84; and $275,000 each for 88 and 90.
Vogelsong helped the Giants win World Series titles in 2012 and '14, then was 9-11 with a 4.67 ERA this season in 22 starts and 11 relief appearances. He was 8-10 as a starter.
Drafted by the Giants in the fifth round in 1998, Vogelsong was traded to Pittsburgh in July 2001 and went 10-19 with a 6.00 ERA in 33 starts and 70 relief appearances. He spent three years pitching in Japan, played for minor league affiliates of Philadelphia and the Los Angeles Angels in 2010, then rejoined the Giants ahead of the 2011 season.
He is 58-68 with a 4.45 ERA in 11 big league seasons and 3-0 with a 2.92 ERA in seven postseason starts and one relief appearance.
The Associated Press contributed to this report.