Manager Torey Lovullo made the announcement Thursday before the Diamondbacks played the Houston Astros.
He said De La Rosa was experiencing discomfort over the past 10 days, and it was determined he would need the surgery to repair the ulnar collateral ligament in his right elbow.
"I know Rubby is extremely proud and wants to perform at an elite level, and I think him doing this is going to allow him to get back to where he wants to get back to," Lovullo said, according to The Arizona Republic. "I know there's a lot of risk in having your second Tommy John surgery, but this is what he felt like would be the best thing for him."
De La Rosa first underwent the surgery in 2011 near the end of his rookie season with the Los Angeles Dodgers and missed most of the 2012 and 2013 seasons.
De La Rosa, 28, appeared in nine games for Arizona this season, going 0-1 in 7 2/3 innings with a 4.70 ERA. He last appeared on Aug. 1, allowing a home run and striking out two in one inning of a 16-4 loss to the Chicago Cubs.
Lovullo said the surgery hasn't been scheduled yet. He was unsure of the timeline of the recovery from a second Tommy John surgery but didn't expect De La Rosa to return next season.
Outfielder Yasmany Tomas is set to meet with a specialist in Philadelphia following a second setback in his recovery from a right groin injury, Lovullo said.
Tomas hasn't played for the Diamondbacks since June 2.
The Associated Press contributed to this report.