Crawford left Saturday's game because of the injury and was set to undergo an MRI on Sunday. He told reporters that his "arm went numb" on a throw and that he "just lost feeling."
The Phillies made the move before Sunday's game against the Atlanta Braves. Infielder Jesmuel Valentin was recalled from Triple-A Lehigh Valley in a corresponding roster move.
Crawford, 23, had gotten off to a slow start in his first full season in the majors, batting just .190 in 20 games. The former top prospect also has committed five errors, the most among National League shortstops.
Rookie Scott Kingery started at shortstop Sunday and figures to see the bulk of the playing time at the position during Crawford's absence.