This is the former All-Star's third trip to the DL this season. He was previously sidelined with a hamstring issue and inflammation in his right knee.
The American League Central-leading Indians described Miller's issue as an "external impingement" in his shoulder. Miller is 2-3 with a 3.38 ERA in just 27 games this season.
One of baseball's best relievers when healthy, Miller has made 10 appearances since coming off the disabled list on Aug. 3.
The Indians are hoping they can count on using Miller in the postseason. They rode him hard in the 2016 playoffs when he helped get them to the World Series.
Tyler Olson was recalled from Triple-A Columbus.