The former All-Star and Gold Glove Award winner bumped his elbow recently during a series at the Chicago Cubs, leading to an infection in his bursa sac.
Dodgers manager Dave Roberts said doctors were unable to treat the infection with antibiotics because Pollock had a plate in his elbow from an operation in 2016. That plate was removed in Thursday's procedure.
Pollock, who throws and bats right-handed, originally fractured his elbow while diving for a ball in a 2010 exhibition game. A plate and screw were inserted in the elbow, but Pollock reinjured his elbow in 2016 and was forced to undergo a similar surgery.
"We got on it right away, treated it right away," Pollock said of the cut on his elbow. "For a week it was nothing. It was a really, really strange thing. I have a lot of respect for infections now. It's a pretty serious thing. I don't know if we could've done anything differently."
Pollock, 31, signed a four-year, $55 million contract with the Dodgers in the offseason, but he has struggled at the plate. He is batting .223 (23-for-109) with two home runs and 14 RBIs in 28 games.
In part to address the loss of Pollock's right-handed bat for an extended period, the Dodgers signed free-agent catcher Travis d'Arnaud on Sunday.
The Associated Press contributed to this report.