Cabrera, a two-time American League MVP and 11-time All-Star, left in the sixth inning of Friday's win over Atlanta. He has dealt with soreness in his right knee since spring training.
He is batting .284 with two home runs and 22 RBIs in 194 at-bats this season while splitting his time between first base and designated hitter.
Manager Ron Gardenhire said Cabrera feels pain when pushing off on his swing and starting to run.
"He's been trying to play through it and do his treatment," Gardenhire said. "Now let's just check it out and see why."
Cabrera underwent the MRI in the morning and declined to speak with reporters before the game. He also left a May 14 game against the Houston Astros with right knee soreness.
The 36-year-old Cabrera underwent season-ending left biceps surgery in June 2018. Cabrera received a 10-year, $292 million contract in March 2014 that takes him through at least 2023.