Moreland, who leads the Red Sox with 13 home runs this season, is batting fifth and playing first base Friday against the Tampa Bay Rays.
He was placed on the IL on May 29 with a low back strain.
Red Sox manager Alex Cora said Thursday that Martinez tweaked his back running the bases in the third inning of the Red Sox's 7-5 victory over the Kansas City Royals.
Martinez struggled with back spasms last month, missing four consecutive games. He also missed two games in April.
He is batting .296 with 12 home runs and 33 RBIs this season.
Right-hander Ryan Weber was optioned to Triple-A Pawtucket to create a roster spot for Moreland.