Rodon then allowed two runs and five hits in five innings to improve to 10-5 this season as the White Sox edged the Blue Jays 10-7.
"Very encouraging,'' White Sox manager Tony La Russa said after the game. "Can't wait to send him back out there.''
Rodon, an All-Star for the first time this season, was placed on the injured list earlier this month with shoulder fatigue.
He has a 2.43 ERA in 114⅔ innings pitched this season and is on pace to pitch more innings than in any year since 2016 when he pitched a career-high 165 innings. Tommy John surgery limited him to just 42 innings over the past two seasons before this one.
Infielder Danny Mendick was optioned to Triple-A Charlotte in a corresponding move.
The Associated Press contributed to this report.