The Braves made the move before Tuesday's game against the Chicago Cubs.
Right-hander William Woods was recalled to take Rosario's spot, giving the Braves 16 pitchers on their 28-man roster.
A star of the 2021 postseason, when he was the MVP of the National League Championship Series and helped the Braves win their first World Series title in 26 years, Rosario was off to a miserable start with just three hits in his first 44 at-bats for an .068 average, with no homers or RBI.
Rosario has been dealing with swelling in his right retina. He was examined by a retinal specialist Monday and will undergo a laser procedure to correct the blurred vision.
The blow of losing Rosario will be softened by the impending return of Ronald Acuña Jr.
Traded from Cleveland to Atlanta last July, Rosario tested free agency after the 2021 season before re-signing with the Braves on an $18 million, two-year deal.
Coming back from a knee injury that ended his 2021 season, Acuña is expected to play at least two more games with Triple-A Gwinnett as part of his rehab assignment.
He has been projected to rejoin the Braves on May 6, but that timetable could be moved up with the defending champs winning just seven of their first 17 games.
Acuña is hitting .357 with three stolen bases and an RBI in 14 at-bats for Gwinnett.
The 23-year-old Woods had yet to pitch in the big leagues. He was added to the 40-man roster last November and split time this season between Double-A Mississippi and Gwinnett.
Woods has pitched in six games with one start in the minors, going a combined 0-1 with a 7.04 ERA. All six runs came in his first two appearances; he has since pitched 3 2/3 perfect innings with nine strikeouts.