Votto, who has been out since May 3, said he dealt with symptoms for more than a week after getting the virus.
The 38-year-old previously tested positive for COVID-19 in March 2021.
The six-time All-Star is hitting .122 with no home runs and three RBIs, and had played in all 22 Cincinnati games this season. Votto has struck out 29 times in 74 at-bats.
The Associated Press contributed to this report.