Major League Baseball passed a sweeping set of rules changes it hopes will fundamentally overhaul the game, voting Friday to implement a pitch clock and ban defensive shifts in 2023 to hasten the game's pace and increase action.
The league's competition committee, composed of six ownership-level representatives, four players and one umpire, approved a pitch clock of 15 seconds with empty bases and 20 seconds with runners on, a defensive alignment that must include two fielders on each side of the second-base bag with both feet on the dirt as well as rules limiting pickoff moves and expanding the size of bases.
The vote was not unanimous. Player representatives voted no on the shift and pitch-clock portions of changes.
Long tested in the minor leagues, the pitch clock, when strictly enforced, has significantly accelerated the speed of games. Minor league games this season have consistently clocked in at under 2 hours, 30 minutes -- a time seen by many as ideal -- and average game times have settled a little over it.
The rule is strict: The catcher must be in position when the timer hits 10 seconds, the hitter must be have both feet in the batter's box and be "alert" at the 8-second mark and the pitcher must start his "motion to pitch" by the expiration of the clock. A violation by the pitcher is an automatic ball. One by the hitter constitutes an automatic strike.
The banning of defensive shifts, which were once a fringe strategy but have become normal occurrence and the bane of left-handed hitters, is among the more extreme versions, preventing defensive player movement in multiple directions. With all four infielders needing to be on the dirt, the days of the four-outfielder setup will be over. Even more pertinent, shifting an infielder to play short right field, or simply overshifting three infielders to the right side of the second-base bag, will no longer be legal.
The position of defensive players can be reviewed -- and, if a defense is deemed illegal, the batting team can choose to accept the outcome of the play or take an automatic ball instead.
By limiting disengagements with the mound, either via pickoff move or step-off, the rules hold accountable pitchers who would otherwise have a pitch-clock workaround -- and are likely to significantly increase stolen bases, part of the action MLB intended to increase.
Pickoffs and step-offs reset the pitch clock, and the rules will limit pitchers to two for each plate appearance. (The number would reset if a runner advances.) A pitcher can make a third pickoff attempt, but if it's unsuccessful it will be a balk, allowing the runners to move up a base.
In a statement Friday, the Major League Baseball Players Association explained why players on the competition committee voted unanimously against the implementation of the pitch clock and banning of the shift.
"Player leaders from across the league were engaged in on-field rules negotiations through the Competition Committee, and they provided specific and actionable feedback on the changes proposed by the Commissioner's Office," the statement read. "Major League Baseball was unwilling to meaningfully address the areas of concern that Players raised, and, as a result, Players on the Competition Committee voted unanimously against the implementation of the rules covering defensive shifts and use of pitch timer."
Meanwhile, the bases will increase from 15 to 18 inches square, with expectations that the larger size reduces collisions around the bag along with slightly shortening the distance between bases.
Additionally, teams will be granted an extra mound visit in the ninth inning if they have exhausted their five allotted visits. If a team still has visits remaining, it does not receive an extra one.
Prior to 2022, rules changes had been solely the bailiwick of the league, which could implement on-field modifications a year after informing players it planned to alter a rule. As part of the new collective bargaining agreement between MLB and the MLB Players Association, the timeline for rule implementation was accelerated to 45 days and included the creation of the competition committee, in which players would participate.
"The players point of view is that we would rather move slowly and make sure the game looks the way the game looks now and keep making changes if we needed to, in a stricter direction, as opposed to going all the way strict and working backwards from there," Happ said.
Morgan Sword, executive vice president of baseball operations, said that was discussed.
"We did discuss transitional issues like that," Sword said. "The adjustment period is very fast for most players. It takes about a week feeling comfortable. And if you're going to do something like the clock, you want it to work. It was the committee's belief that jumping to the best form of this was the prudent move.
The committee includes Seattle owner John Stanton, St. Louis owner Bill DeWitt, Boston owner Tom Werner, San Francisco owner Greg Johnson, Colorado owner Dick Monfort, Toronto president Mark Shapiro, Tampa Bay pitcher Tyler Glasnow, St. Louis pitcher Jack Flaherty, Toronto superutilityman Whit Merrifield, San Francisco outfielder Austin Slater and umpire Bill Miller.
ESPN's Jesse Rogers contributed to this report.