Rookie third baseman Royce Lewis was also scheduled for more testing, including an MRI on Thursday after the team returns home, on his left hamstring. He was not in the starting lineup for Wednesday's 5-3 win at the Cincinnati Reds.
Correa has been battling his injury since May and aggravated it in the first inning Monday. The decision to place him on the injured list, retroactive to Tuesday, came after an MRI, according to interim manager Jayce Tingler.
If Minnesota, which leads the American League Central, makes the playoffs, its first postseason game would likely be Oct. 3, 14 days after the IL announcement.
"We think this is the best way to give Carlos a meaningful, full playoff run," Tingler said.
The magic number for the Twins (81-72) to clinch the AL Central is one game.
Correa is hitting .230 in a team-high 135 games.
Lewis' hamstring tightened up during Tuesday's game. He is hitting .309 with 15 home runs and 52 RBIs over 58 games, including a Twins' single-season record four grand slams.
"He was riding the [exercise] bike," Tingler said.
The Twins recalled outfielder Trevor Larnach from Triple-A St. Paul.
The Associated Press contributed to this report.