UFC officials announced the fight on Saturday. The event will take place at the Rotterdam Ahoy.
Struve (28-8), who is from North Holland, hasn't fought yet in 2017. He was scheduled to face Junior dos Santos in February but was forced to withdraw with a shoulder injury.
A former Bellator MMA champion, Volkov (28-6) is 2-0 since signing with the UFC last year. The Russian heavyweight is coming off a decision win against Roy Nelson in April.