Volkanovski (25-1) wrote on Twitter that he will undergo surgery on the broken hand and the recovery timeline is 12 weeks.
"Broke my thumb in the second round, but that don't stop us," Volkanovski wrote. "Having surgery today and will be out for 12 weeks. Looking forward to getting back out there, thanks to everyone for the support."
Despite breaking his thumb in the second round, Volkanovski, of Australia, was dominant in his featherweight title decision win over Holloway at UFC 276 in Las Vegas. A former champion himself, Holloway failed to win a single round.
Volkanovski, who ESPN ranks as the No. 2 pound-for-pound fighter in the world, has expressed a desire to move up in weight and challenge for a second belt in the near future. The win over Holloway was his fourth defense of the 145-pound belt.
Volkanovski has fought three times over the last year and twice in the last three months.