The UFC is down a fight on Saturday's card.
Anders wrote that his withdrawal is "due to issues concerned with my health." The UFC middleweight missed weight by 1.5 pounds Friday morning, coming in at 187.5 pounds.
"I am recovering and look forward to getting back to action ASAP," Anders wrote on Twitter.
Anders (13-5) had a two-fight winning streak snapped in his last bout, a loss to Krzysztof Jotko in May. The 33-year-old Alabama resident is a former football player at the University of Alabama.
Arroyo (9-3) was expecting to make his return after a year layoff. The 31-year-old Brazilian's initial opponent for Saturday, Andreas Michailidis, also withdrew, and Anders was his replacement.
In addition to Anders, Louis Smolka was deemed medically unfit to compete Saturday night and his bantamweight bout with Jose Quiñonez has been canceled, per the UFC. Smolka's issue is not COVID-19 related, promotion officials told ESPN. Smolka missed weight by three pounds Friday, coming in at 139.