In 16 minutes against the Pelicans, Bryant finished with seven points on 3-of-9 shooting, including 0-of-5 from 3-point range, with three rebounds and an assist. He left without speaking to reporters after the game.
The 37-year-old Bryant, who plans to retire after this season, his 20th in the NBA, missed the Lakers' previous game -- a loss to the Utah Jazz on Sunday -- because of the same injury.
"I don't know the extent of it, but obviously, it must be bothering him pretty bad," Lakers coach Byron Scott said.
Scott added that he isn't sure if Bryant will play Thursday against the Golden State Warriors in what would be Bryant's final game in Oakland, California.
Bryant has been dealing with a sore right shoulder, the same shoulder he had surgically repaired after he tore his rotator cuff in January 2015. Because of the soreness, Bryant missed three consecutive games earlier this month against the Philadelphia 76ers, Phoenix Suns and Warriors.
Lakers coach Byron Scott recently said Bryant strained his Achilles Friday during the fourth quarter of the Lakers' loss to the Oklahoma City Thunder. Bryant ruptured his left Achilles in April 2013.
Bryant is averaging 30.4 minutes per game, the most any player has averaged in his 20th NBA season. The next five on the list: Kareem Abdul-Jabbar (22.9 minutes per game in his 20th season); Kevin Garnett (20.3 per game), Robert Parish (14.7), Kevin Willis (11.9) and Moses Malone (11.2).
Scott said he is not ready to consider decreasing Bryant's minutes.
"I'll reconsider it probably when he's ready to play again," Scott said. "I don't know if he's going to be ready to play Thursday in [Oakland]. That's really the last thing on my mind. It's more how he feels, and it's something we can control."
He added: "This is real early. I want to see what [Lakers trainer] Gary Vitti says and our doctors, and then we'll go from there."