Jeter finished 1-for-4 in the Yankees' 14-7 loss.
Jeter now has 3,185 hits in his career. Next up for Jeter on the list is Nap Lajoie, who finished with 3,252 hits. The first-inning double was Jeter's 97th hit of the season.
Shortly after the hit, Ripken released a statement congratulating Jeter.
"Derek has been such a special player for such a long time and I am happy to see him continue to play at a high level," Ripken said. "He represents the game and the Yankees wonderfully, and I hope that he continues to play and continues to give all of us baseball fans great memories."
For Jeter, passing Ripken is extra special because, although Jeter grew up a Yankees fan, he always admired Ripken.
"To have your name next to Cal on anything, it is pretty special," Jeter said prior to Friday's game. "He played this game for a long time and had a lot of success.
"Cal sort of redefined the position when you think about how tall he was. You had (Barry) Larkin, (Alan) Trammell, they helped turn it into more of an offensive position. Before him, you never heard of a guy 6-(foot)-4 playing shortstop."
Jeter, 38, may try to pursue 4,000 hits. His contract has one more season for $17 million, plus a player option for $8 million in 2014.
Jeter has played down the idea of catching Pete Rose's 4,256 hits, but while unlikely, it's not impossible. Rose played until he was 45.