He was booked into the Montgomery County jail at 1:06 a.m. CT and released at 1:35 a.m. CT after posting the $15,000 bond.
Peterson had been indicted by a grand jury on charges of reckless or negligent injury to a child and a warrant had been issued for his arrest. He flew back early Saturday morning to Minnesota, where he has been deactivated for the Vikings' home game against the Patriots on Sunday.
At a news conference on Saturday afternoon, Montgomery County first assistant district attorney Phil Grant said Peterson was charged with one count of injury to a child and could be sentenced to as many as two years in state jail, as well as a $10,000 fine. Probation is an option, Grant said, for defendants with no prior criminal record.
Grant said only one grand jury reviewed Peterson's case, refuting a report that an initial grand jury rejected the case and it took a second grand jury to indict Peterson. He said the grand jury "was provided lots of evidence over a significant number of weeks, and at the conclusion of that evidence presentation and an explanation of the law in this particular matter, they chose to indict Mr. Peterson."
In Texas, Grant said, "parents are entitled to discipline their children as they see fit, except when that discipline exceeds what the community would say is reasonable." In Peterson's case, Grant said, the grand jury found Peterson's discipline exceeded a reasonable standard.
Peterson will likely make a court appearance in the next several weeks, Grant said, but it could be several months before the case would go to trial.
Peterson's uncle, Chris, told ESPN.com that Peterson will be releasing a statement at some point through his attorney but that it wouldn't come Saturday. Peterson wants to take his time, his uncle said.
Peterson's attorney, Rusty Hardin, issued a statement Friday saying his client's conduct "involves using a switch to spank his son." According to a report by Sports Radio 610 in Houston, Peterson removed the leaves of a tree branch, which he referred to in a police report as "a switch," to strike the 4-year-old child.
The Houston station, citing law enforcement sources, said Peterson told police that the incident -- he referred to it as a "whooping" -- occurred in Spring, Texas, in May as punishment for his son pushing another one of Peterson's children. The boy suffered cuts and bruises to areas including his back, buttocks, ankles and legs.
"This indictment follows Adrian's full cooperation with authorities who have been looking into this matter. Adrian is a loving father who used his judgment as a parent to discipline his son," Hardin said in his statement. "He used the same kind of discipline with his child that he experienced as a child growing up in east Texas. Adrian has never hidden from what happened."
Hardin said Peterson has cooperated fully with authorities and voluntarily testified before the grand jury for several hours.
"Adrian will address the charges with the same respect and responsiveness he has brought to this inquiry from its beginning," Hardin said. "It is important to remember that Adrian never intended to harm his son and deeply regrets the unintentional injury."
The Vikings released a statement earlier Friday saying they're in the process of gathering information about Peterson's legal situation and deferred comment to Hardin.
Vikings executive vice president and general manager Rick Spielman expanded on the team's stance on Sunday.
"Friday night was the first we heard of the formal allegations against Adrian Peterson, and we decided, as an organization, that to deactivate him this weekend was in the best interest of everybody concerned," he told ESPN's Sal Paolantonio. "We are, as an organization, still in the process of gathering information, and at the end of the weekend we will discuss what we will do going forward. You don't want to make any knee-jerk reactions. All options are on the table. You can't take any options off the table because we're still gathering information."
On Saturday, the NFL told ESPN.com it would review Peterson's case under the league's personal conduct policy.
Nike, which Peterson endorses, said Saturday: "We are aware of the concerning allegations surrounding Adrian Peterson. We will continue to closely monitor the situation."
Peterson is pictured on the Vikings' tickets for Sunday's game as well as the tickets for his alma mater Oklahoma's home game against Tennessee on Saturday.
Last October, Peterson's 2-year-old son died in Sioux Falls, South Dakota, after being allegedly assaulted by a man who was dating the boy's mother. Peterson learned only two months earlier that he was the boy's father. The man who assaulted the boy, Joseph Robert Patterson, was charged with murder and manslaughter.
Peterson reflected on the loss in an August interview with ESPN.com Vikings reporter Ben Goessling.
"It's just made me stop taking things for granted," said Peterson, who turned 29 in March. "Life is short. You never know. You just want to take advantage of the time you do have."
Peterson, in his eighth NFL season, rushed for 10,115 yards through his first seven full seasons as a pro, the fifth-most for any running back in NFL history during that specific time frame.
ESPN.com's Ben Goessling and Darren Rovell contributed to this report.