Jacobs, 24, has started two of the Jaguars' three games and had two tackles entering Thursday. He has started 12 games since the Jaguars drafted him in the seventh round in 2018.
Jacobs was hurt on the seventh play of the game, a 7-yard run by Miami's Myles Gaskin. Jacobs stayed on the ground for several minutes and was taken off the field on a cart.
Cassius Marsh, whom the Jaguars signed to a one-year deal in March, replaced Jacobs in the lineup.
The Jaguars also lost starting free safety Andrew Wingard late in the first half of the game to a core muscle injury. He was ruled out at halftime.
Wingard is starting in place of Jarrod Wilson, who is on IR with a hamstring injury.
Second-year player Brandon Watson replaced Wingard.
Jaguars rookie kicker Brandon White suffered a groin injury in the fourth quarter and was listed as questionable to return. White, who missed an extra point in the fourth quarter before the injury was announced, took over the kicking duties after Josh Lambo went on injured reserve with a hip injury.