Thanksgiving Day to sports fans is as much about football as it is about the traditional turkey dinner. From high school football in the morning to watching the afternoon game on TV as dinner starts, this tradition is as old as time. Well, almost as old as time.
The Detroit Lions have played at home on Thanksgiving every year since 1934 -- except when games were paused from 1939 to 1944 during World War II. The annual holiday tradition expanded to add a home game for the Dallas Cowboys in the 1960s. These franchises -- and their fans -- only know football on Thanksgiving. In 2006, the NFL added a third game with no specific host team to the prime-time window.
The 2023 Thanksgiving Day schedule:
Each of these games will have a halftime performance. This year, artist Jack Harlow will perform at the Packers-Lions halftime show, singer Dolly Parton will perform at the Commanders-Cowboys game and artist Steve Aoki will take the stage at the Seahawks-49ers game on Thursday night.
So why do the Lions and Cowboys always play at home on Thanksgiving? What does the day look like for the coaches, players, families and fans who put their holiday celebrations on pause to take part? And how many thousands of pounds of food is served at the stadium? We asked NFL Nation reporters Todd Archer and Eric Woodyard to explain the history.
We have also laid out the Thanksgiving stats and numbers you should know and even took a journey back in time to explore the biggest and best moments on the turkey day stage. (Note: This article was originally posted in November 2021 and has been updated for 2023.)
How the Thanksgiving tradition began
The Lions were first up to host games every year: In 1934, Lions owner G.A. Richards scheduled a holiday matchup between the Lions and the Bears. Earlier that year Richards had purchased the Portsmouth (Ohio) Spartans football team and moved it to the Motor City, renaming it the Detroit Lions. The defending back-to-back world champion Bears beat the Lions 19-16 in front of 26,000 at the University of Detroit Stadium on Nov. 29, 1934.
Now, more than eight decades later, Thanksgiving football has become a staple in Detroit, with the Lions going 37-44-2 in the annual holiday classic. -- Woodyard
Thirty-two years later, the Cowboys joined as a home team: The Cowboys first played on Thanksgiving in 1966, beating the Cleveland Browns 26-14 at the Cotton Bowl. General manager Tex Schramm wanted more national publicity for the Cowboys -- this was before they were known as America's Team -- and thought the holiday game made perfect sense. The NFL was a bit worried, however, and guaranteed the Cowboys a certain amount of gate revenue. A crowd of 80,259 showed up and a tradition was born. The Cowboys have played on every Thanksgiving Day since -- except in 1975 and 1977.
Why didn't the Cowboys play on Thanksgiving those two years? Prior to the 1975 season, then-commissioner Pete Rozelle wanted to see if the St. Louis Cardinals could build their popularity under coach Don Coryell, whose teams were nicknamed the Cardiac Kids because of their exciting finishes. So he scheduled them to host Thanksgiving games in 1975 and 1977. The Cardinals lost both games decidedly, and Rozelle went back to Schramm to ask whether the Cowboys would take the Thanksgiving game back.
"It was a dud in St. Louis," Schramm said in 1988 to the Chicago Tribune. "Pete asked if we'd take it back. I said only if we get it permanently. It's something you have to build as a tradition. He said, 'It's yours forever.'" -- Archer
Given how long the series has lasted, it's not a surprise that the Lions have the most wins and losses on Thanksgiving Day. But two other teams that frequent the holiday tradition are the Bears and Packers.
Detroit Lions: 37-44-2
Dallas Cowboys: 32-22-1
Chicago Bears: 20-15-2
Green Bay Packers: 14-20-2
What's it like to play on Thanksgiving?
Cowboys guard Zack Martin has grown accustomed to playing games on "Monday Night Football" and "Sunday Night Football," but there's something different about playing on Thanksgiving.
Martin grew up in Indianapolis and starred at Notre Dame before the Cowboys made him a first-round pick in 2014, and he would always watch the Lions play the early game and the Cowboys play later on the holiday.
"It may be different to the outside world, but for us I think it's different because it's just that tradition that you know the Cowboys play on Thanksgiving," Martin said. "I didn't grow up a Cowboys fan, but I always knew they played on Thanksgiving, so coming down here, being part of that is pretty cool."
After the game, the Martins will eat at AT&T Stadium before returning home to relax. Their traditional Thanksgiving meal comes on Friday.
"For me, [the best part of the game] is just being able to have my family and everyone down for Thanksgiving," Martin said. "Normally teams would miss that because they're practicing during the week, but we get to play and then have some time with family and friends." -- Archer
Lions wide receiver Amon-Ra St. Brown is gearing up to play in his third NFL Thanksgiving game with the team, though to him the experience is not so unusual because he would always have at least a practice on the holiday in high school.
Still, playing Thanksgiving in the NFL is a big tradition -- and one he has embraced.
"We always play on Thanksgiving, but I think it's kind of nice because if you have a game on Sunday, you've got to practice on Thursdays, which kind of runs until 5 o'clock, but if you have a game, we have a game at 12:30, we play and then after that we're free and we can hang out with family the rest of the day. You don't have to worry about getting up the next day, so I like the tradition," St. Brown told ESPN.
"It's fun and everyone's tuned in on Thanksgiving. Everyone is watching football. I remember as a kid, watching Thanksgiving football because you're out eating with friends and then you just throw football on." -- Woodyard
How do players celebrate Thanksgiving?
Celebrations generally don't happen until the next day, when Lions players can celebrate with their families. Lomas Brown, former Lions Pro Bowl OT (1985-95), says he "couldn't wait until after the game was over, man."
"Because look, it wasn't just that Thursday night, at least for me, I went on an eating binge Thursday, Friday, Saturday and Sunday. I would put on weight over the holiday because a brother would throw down because you didn't have no more responsibility after that game until next week. So, it was almost like another little open week, and that's the way we kind of looked at it, too." -- Woodyard
For the Cowboys, most players with families will also celebrate on Friday. With a late-afternoon kickoff, most of the time players will not get back to their homes until later in the evening, far too late for such a heavy meal. -- Archer
Teams give back to community
The Cowboys open the Salvation Army's Red Kettle Campaign kickoff at halftime of every Thanksgiving game. Since 1997, nearly $3 billion has been raised and aiding the Salvation Army is a long-standing priority for Cowboys owner Jerry Jones. Jerry, along with his daughter Charlotte, have led multiple initiatives year-round with the Salvation Army, from raising money with the 50/50 raffle at games to holiday initiatives that benefit local communities.
In most years, Cowboys players will visit a Salvation Army shelter in Dallas or Fort Worth and feed early Thanksgiving Day meals to those in need, although that practice was put on hold in 2020 and 2021 because of the COVID-19 pandemic before being restarted in 2022.
In the past, players often were joined by their wives and children. Former tight end Jason Witten had his two sons and two daughters participated in handing out meals during his career with the Cowboys.
"I just try to tell [my kids], 'Look, you're going to have an opportunity to give back to people that are less fortunate,'" Witten said a few years ago. "They do it with a happy heart. I think they like seeing those fans and being able to hand out that food." -- Archer
The Lions also give back to the community during Thanksgiving week, distributing 2,500 meal kits with whole turkeys at six different locations throughout Metro Detroit.
Each kit contains approximately 26 pounds of food (turkey, vegetables, stuffing, potatoes, macaroni and cheese, gravy, etc.) and will be distributed to about 56,000 people. Players and other volunteers helped assemble the kits. -- Woodyard
What are some season-ticket holder traditions?
There is a tailgating group of more than 100 die-hard Lions fans who gather bright and early at 9 a.m., typically in the parking lot of Detroit's Eastern Market. Usually, they cook about four turkeys and each signs up to bring a side dish. The dishes are named based on the team the Lions are facing -- for example, Bears Stew and Mac-And-Not-Packer-Cheese.
Megan Stefanski, a lifelong Lions fan and longtime season-ticket holder, helps organize the festivities. She makes a five-hour drive from Goetzville, Michigan -- located in the Upper Peninsula -- to Detroit.
Mark "Pilgrim" Mullins has been a season-ticket holder since 1991 and dresses up yearly as a pilgrim for each Thanksgiving Day game with his daughter, Mandie, accompanying him also in costume.
"We're known in Detroit as the pilgrims," he said in 2021. "Matter of fact, I've got souvenirs from all my friends this year because it's my 30th anniversary of actually dressing as the pilgrim." Each year, he has added to his costume, since the Pontiac Silverdome days and now at Ford Field. He also attends the tailgates with Stefanski.
"That was the whole goal was just to dress like a pilgrim, be festive and get on TV," Mullins said. "So, the next year comes around and all of the people in my section were like, 'Hey, big guy, you're gonna be the pilgrim again?' And I'm like, 'Well, I guess I should.'" -- Woodyard
And how about perhaps the most famous Cowboys season-ticket (or suite) holder, Roger Staubach?
The Hall of Fame quarterback, better known as Captain America, holds an annual Turkey Bowl game at AT&T Stadium on the day before Thanksgiving.
How much sway does Staubach have? As he entered The Star last November, Cowboys coach Mike McCarthy had to catch his breath in a way as he saw the quarterback.
"That's Roger Staubach," McCarthy, a Pittsburgh native, said, turning his attention back to the media. "Man, I'm shook. Just thinking about the old Super Bowls, Steelers and the Cowboys ...'' -- Archer
The night before Thanksgiving is not necessarily a team turkey dinner for the Cowboys, but turkey and all the fixings are available for the players if they want. But a lot of the players stick with their traditional night-before-game meal of either a steak, chicken, fish or pasta. Given how most people feel after wolfing down their turkey, mashed potatoes and stuffing, it's probably wise the players don't gorge themselves like that. -- Archer
The Lions don't have one big team Thanksgiving dinner, as some might think. Some guys would understandably rather eat at home with family. Traditional Thanksgiving fare is typically served to players at the day before the game. -- Woodyard
What does Cowboys owner Jerry Jones eat for Thanksgiving?
The Joneses are like most of their players. They have a full Thanksgiving meal on the Friday after the Cowboys game at Jerry's home in Highland Park. It's a traditional Thanksgiving meal with dishes whose recipes have been passed down through the years from the mothers of Jerry and Gene Jones.
At the top of the list are the family recipes for duck, dressing and sweet potatoes. -- Archer
Thanksgiving dinners at the stadium
For all the Cowboys' suite holders, as well as those with access to the club areas and the press box at AT&T Stadium in Arlington, Texas, a traditional Thanksgiving Day meal is served. -- Archer
Here is the breakdown of the food that was served in 2023, according to Legends Hospitality:
16,320 pounds of Cowboys Mac N Cheese
5,410 pounds of ham
212 gallons of heavy whipping cream
252 gallons of cranberry sauce
2,680 pounds of Yukon gold potatoes
13,515 pounds of turkey
5,130 pounds of cornbread for dressing
310 gallons of gravy
425 pounds of pecans for pies
830 pounds of fresh green beans for bowls and hand pies
970 pounds of pumpkin for pies
2,340 pounds of sweet potatoes
260 pounds of greens for salads and sides
At Ford Field in Detroit, the stadium's culinary hospitality team will get the day started at 3 a.m. ET to ensure everything is ready to go ahead of the 12:30 p.m. kickoff. For fans in the stadium, previous years featured turkey legs, loaded sweet potatoes and bourbon-spiked cider available to purchase. And more extensive Thanksgiving meals are served to suite members. -- Woodyard
Here's a breakdown of food by the pound, according to Levy Restaurants in 2023:
4,100 pounds of turkey
1,800 turkey legs
3,200 pounds of mashed potatoes
110 gallons of gravy
2,200 pounds of stuffing
55 gallons of cranberry sauce
720 pounds of green beans
500 pounds of corn on the cob
3,700 slices of pie
4,000 bloody marys
Thanksgiving by the numbers
1: Number of teams to never play on Thanksgiving Day: Jacksonville Jaguars
6: Most passing touchdowns in a single Thanksgiving game, held by Bob Griese (1977) and Peyton Manning (2004).
6: Thanksgiving Day shutouts since the merger in 1970. There has not been a shutout since the Cowboys shut out the Miami Dolphins in 1999.
8.5: Most career sacks on Thanksgiving, held by former Lions DE Ezekiel Ansah.
11: Most career Thanksgiving receiving touchdowns, held by former Lions WR Calvin Johnson.
18: Most career touchdown passes on Thanksgiving, held by former Cowboys QB Tony Romo and former Lions QB Matthew Stafford.
895: Most career receiving yards on Thanksgiving, held by former Cowboys TE Jason Witten.
1,178: Most career rushing yards on Thanksgiving, held by former Cowboys RB Emmitt Smith. Smith also has the most career rushing touchdowns on Thanksgiving with 13.
3,000: Most career passing yards on Thanksgiving, held by Stafford in 10 career Thanksgiving games.
Thanksgiving's best moments
Backup QB Clint Longley took over for a concussed Roger Staubach with the Cowboys trailing Washington 16-3. Longley rallied Dallas by capping off the comeback with a 50-yard touchdown pass to Drew Pearson with 28 seconds left to edge Washington 24-23.
The Bears rallied from 17-3 down to defeat the Lions 23-17 in overtime behind Dave Williams' 95-yard kickoff return. It was the first overtime game on turkey day (the OT period was instituted in 1974).
New York Giants linebacker Lawrence Taylor returned a 97-yard pick-six in a 13-6 win over the Lions.
He collapsed the pocket all day.— NFL Throwback (@nflthrowback) November 23, 2018
Then, in the fourth quarter, he scored the game's only touchdown.
It's hard for a defensive player to leave as big of an imprint on a game as Lawrence Taylor did in this Thanksgiving clash with the Lions.
(Nov. 25, 1982) @Giants @LT_56 pic.twitter.com/G3Jswhynxm
Cowboys defensive tackle Leon Lett inexplicably tried to recover a blocked game-winning field goal attempt. The ball was booted forward by Lett and recovered by the Dolphins at the 2-yard line. Miami connected on its next field goal attempt and won 16-14.
Barry Sanders and the Lions crushed the Bears 55-20, with Sanders rushing for 167 yards and three touchdowns.
On this day 22 years ago, @BarrySanders rushed for 167 yards and three touchdowns against the Bears on Thanksgiving! 🦃 (Nov. 27, 1997)#CHIvsDET: Thanksgiving Day at 12:30pm ET on FOX pic.twitter.com/dMa0jYGPm3— NFL Legacy (@NFLLegacy) November 27, 2019
Vikings rookie Randy Moss had only three catches, but all three went for 50-plus-yard touchdowns in a 46-36 win over the Cowboys. Three catches. Three TDs. 163 yards.
Three catches. Three TDs. 163 yards.— NFL Throwback (@nflthrowback) November 22, 2018
The Cowboys passed on @RandyMoss in the draft.
So when he took the field in Dallas on Thanksgiving of his rookie year, he ripped them up. (Nov. 26, 1998) @Vikings pic.twitter.com/3chjj0l8tp
In Indianapolis' 41-9 win over the Lions, Colts QB Peyton Manning threw six touchdowns, tied for the most on Thanksgiving Day with Bob Griese (1977).
Tom Brady finished with a perfect passer rating. Brady completed 21 of 27 passes for 341 yards and four touchdowns in the Patriots' 45-24 rout of the Lions. The Patriots actually trailed 24-17 midway through the third quarter before Brady threw three touchdown passes -- of 79 and 22 yards to Deion Branch, and 16 yards to Wes Welker -- in a span of 13 minutes, 30 seconds.
A play no one will forget. Jets QB Mark Sanchez fumbled the ball after running into a teammate in New York's 49-19 loss to the Patriots. Also known as the "Butt Fumble."