Cornerback Jalen Ramsey and offensive guard Robert Jones also landed on IR, both of which were expected moves. All three players will be eligible to return for the Dolphins' game against the New York Giants on Oct. 8.
Wilson's placement on IR came as a bit of a surprise, but coach Mike McDaniel called it the result of multiple issues the running back was dealing with toward the end of the summer.
"It's a midsection injury compounded by some finger issues," he said. "We made the assessment he couldn't protect himself and couldn't be himself the way we know him to be. I wouldn't be surprised if he would make a return this season. We will let his body tell us."
Wilson's injuries leave Raheem Mostert and undrafted rookie Chris Brooks as the Dolphins' lone healthy running backs. Third-round draft pick De'Von Achane continues to work his way back from a shoulder injury suffered in Miami's second preseason game, but McDaniel expects him to be available for Week 1.
Salvon Ahmed avoided a concussion after leaving the Dolphins' third preseason game against the Jacksonville Jaguars to be evaluated for one but is still considered day-to-day; McDaniel said Ahmed could return to practice as soon as Thursday or as late as next week.
Miami dealt a fifth-round pick to the San Francisco 49ers for Wilson at last season's trade deadline. He rushed for 392 yards and three touchdowns on 84 carries in eight games with the Dolphins, adding another 94 yards and a touchdown on 12 receptions.
In other news Thursday, the Dolphins and fullback Alec Ingold agreed to a three-year, $12.2 million extension that includes $6 million guaranteed, a source told ESPN. He can earn an additional $500,000 in incentives each year. Ingold, 27, was scheduled to become an unrestricted free agent after this season.