Kreider suffered the injury while blocking a shot by Flyers defenseman Philippe Myers. The Rangers did not have a timetable for Kreider's return after the game.
Kreider, 28, was among the biggest names available at Monday's NHL trade deadline, but the Rangers re-signed him to a seven-year contract extension with an average annual value of $6.5 million.
The surging Rangers entered Friday's game having already won 11 games this month, the most they've ever won in February.
New York also entered Friday's game at Philadelphia with nine consecutive road wins.
According to Money Puck, the Rangers' chances to make the playoffs increased from 9% at the All-Star break to 41% entering action Friday. New York entered the weekend two points behind Columbus for the second Eastern Conference wild-card spot.
Kreider ranks third on the Rangers with 24 goals through 62 games this season. He was on pace to best his previous career high of 28 goals.
Kreider is the second key Rangers player to be sidelined during this crucial stretch. Rookie goaltender Igor Shesterkin was involved in a car accident Sunday night in Brooklyn and is out weeks with fractured ribs.