The 31-year-old forward played nine games for Colorado last season before having double hip surgery.
Wilson scored 113 goals and had 173 assists in 632 regular-season games. He added 17 goals and 16 assists in 65 playoff games.
"At this time, I am left to reflect on the 8-year-old kid from Winnipeg who couldn't be dragged off a pond or outdoor rink. I can only imagine his excitement in learning of his career he would have in the NHL," Wilson said in a statement released by the players' union. "It is very bittersweet to retire as I leave my childhood passion behind but look forward to what comes next."
Wilson played his final game on Oct. 26 for Colorado. A few days later, he detailed his long struggle with obsessive-compulsive disorder in a post on The Players' Tribune.
Picked seventh overall by Nashville in the 2008 NHL draft, Wilson helped Boston University win the 2009 NCAA championship.
Wilson's father, Carey, and grandfather, Jerry, also played in the NHL.