The team said Matthews, who won the Rocket Richard Trophy last season as the NHL's top goal scorer, had the surgery following "consultations with specialists and Maple Leafs medical staff."
The Maple Leafs said Matthews experienced discomfort after increasing his on-ice training this week.
The 23-year-old from Arizona scored 41 goals in 52 games last season despite missing four games beginning in February with a lingering wrist issue. Toronto did not specify which wrist needed the operation, or if the injuries were related.
Toronto is scheduled to open the regular season Oct. 13 at home against Montreal.