The procedure was performed Wednesday at Twin Cities Orthopedics in Minnesota.
The 28-year-old winger will be reevaluated in 12 weeks. The Penguins' first preseason game is Sept. 28 and their regular-season opener is Oct. 10 at Chicago.
"As Jake continued to increase the intensity of his preparation for the upcoming season, it was apparent that his ankle injury was not resolving in a way that was satisfactory to he or the Penguins," general manager Kyle Dubas said in a news release. "... It was decided that surgery would be the best way to ensure Jake would be at his best in 2023-2024."
Guentzel tallied 73 points (36 goals, 37 assists) in 78 games in 2022-23. He has 414 points (197 goals, 217 assists) in 453 games over seven seasons with the Penguins, who drafted him in the third round in 2013.
He won a Stanley Cup with Pittsburgh in 2017 and was selected to the All-Star Game in 2022.
Guentzel is scheduled to earn $6 million in 2023-24, the final season of his five-year contract.