The 38-year-old retired from playing on June 4 after a stellar career that saw him make 748 club appearances, scoring 309 goals. He also earned 82 caps with Argentina.
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Tevez left Boca Juniors a year ago and will now embark on a managerial career after signing a 12-month contract with the Rosario-based club on Tuesday.
Rosario Central were looking for a new coach after Leandro Somoza stepped down from the post last week citing a difference of opinion with the club's executives.
Tevez was introduced as Central's new coach on Tuesday night and his appearance generated high expectations.
"As a player, I always generated these things in the clubs I played for. But today it's something new and I'm on the other side and the truth is that I'm surprised because there are a lot of expectations but I'm calm because we are working very hard," Tevez said.
"I took my first challenge as a coach at Rosario Central because of their people. I had many offers from many clubs, but Rosario has that plus that if we do things right we can make a lot of noise and a lot of history."
Tevez, who could make his coaching debut on June 24 when Rosario host Gimnasia La Plata in the domestic league, said his role model is Antonio Conte.
"I have a great reference who was (Antonio) Conte at Juventus. He was one of those who taught me the most as a player. So I'm going to try to get the team to play at least a little bit, or half the way his team played," he said.
Rosario Central goalkeeper Gaspar Servio says he and his teammates are ready to welcome Tevez with open arms.
He said ahead of Tevez's appointment: "For me it's something special that Carlitos [Tevez] can come here. If he does come here, the group will back him to the death. I hope he comes. He has a lot of experience as a player and we are all predisposed to learn and to help Central."
Central have won one and lost two of their opening four games and are 22nd in Argentina's top division.