Greenwood, 21, has also been charged with controlling and coercive behaviour and assault. He is due to appear at Manchester and Salford Magistrates Court on Monday.
Janet Potter, the deputy Chief Crown Prosecutor for CPS North West, said on Saturday: "The Crown Prosecution Service has today authorised Greater Manchester Police to charge Mason Greenwood, 21, with attempted rape, engaging in controlling and coercive behaviour, and assault occasioning actual bodily harm. All three counts relate to the same complainant.
"Specialist rape prosecutors from CPS North West's complex casework unit authorised the charges following a review of a file of evidence received from Greater Manchester Police."
Greenwood was initially arrested in January following allegations made in a series of online posts.
The Premier League club released a statement on Saturday which read: "Manchester United notes that criminal charges have been brought against Mason Greenwood by the Crown Prosecution Service. He remains suspended by the club, pending the outcome of the judicial process."
A statement issued by Greater Manchester Police on Saturday read: "GMP has charged and remanded a 21-year-old man with controlling and coercive behaviour, attempted rape and Section 47 assault of a woman.
"Mason Greenwood, of Bowdon will appear at Manchester & Salford Magistrates Court on Monday, Oct. 17 2022. He was arrested in the Trafford area earlier today [Saturday]."
Potter added: "The Crown Prosecution Service reminds all concerned that criminal proceedings against the defendant are active and that he has a right to a fair trial."
Information from Reuters was also included in this report.