It is the second time she has lost at that stage, including in her breakthrough run at the All England Club in 2019.
Asked what she learned from her experience at Wimbledon, Gauff said, "I just feel like I'm close. ... Always competitive in these matches against these top players, you know, like, making the second week, so I feel like I'm close. I just need to do better on certain points, and certain moments in the match I have to notice when the momentum changes and how to react to when it changes."
Kerber outplayed Gauff in the key moments Monday, converting four of the five break points she created and saving four of the six that she faced.
"Coco is such a great, talented young player,'' Kerber said. "I'm really sure she will have a great career.''
Kerber won Wimbledon in 2018 and is the only former champion left in the women's draw.
Barty beat the French Open champion 7-5, 6-3 on No. 1 Court, coming back from a break down in the first set and then saving seven of the eight break points she faced in the second.
"I love coming out here and testing myself against the best in the world,'' Barty told the crowd. "And there's certainly no place I'd rather be at the moment.''
Krejcikova won her first Grand Slam title at Roland Garros this year and was playing singles at Wimbledon for the first time.
Barty will next face Ajla Tomljanovic, who reached her first Grand Slam quarterfinal when British teenager Emma Raducanu had to stop playing after a medical timeout in the second set. The All England Club later said Raducanu retired because she was having difficulty breathing. The 75th-ranked Tomljanovic was leading 6-4, 3-0 when the match ended under the closed roof at No. 1 Court.
The Tunisian converted all seven break points she created and served out the match at love with an ace. The 21st-seeded Jabeur also reached the quarterfinals at last year's Australian Open, becoming the first Arab woman to reach that stage at any Grand Slam tournament.
"Tunisians are everywhere, I've got to say,'' she said with a smile. "They were singing a football song. I felt the need to sing with them.''
Swiatek won last year's French Open but lost in the first round of her only previous Wimbledon appearance in 2019.
The Associated Press contributed to this report.