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 Thursday, December 21
Outside the Lines: 10 Years Later

Outside The Lines - 10 Years Later

Bob Ley, Host - Sports, the multi-billion-dollar hero industry, a culture of wealth and personality where athletic deeds can lift an individual to icon, and at the very least place him in the familiar society of sport where life revolves around a game.

It starts as a game in its purest and simplest form. But the premium on achievement and excellent, exalted as uniquely American, is learned early. Win just like the big boys do, where the payoffs are big, the moment exhilarating.

Ley - Those were the words and images that began our first show 10 years ago. And with this, our seventy-fifth program, they continue to capture our mission and the stories we bring you.

Welcome to Outside The Lines - 10 Years Later.

Now, we've reported from places as diverse as Vietnam, Moscow, and Medellin, Colombia, brought fresh perspective to people such as Michael Jordan, Tiger Woods, and Jackie Robinson. And so often, the story simply comes down to the dream of sports up against the reality of life.

No story captured that more poignantly than this one from that very first program, updated now by Jeremy Schaap and first reported by our late colleague Pete Axhelm.

Unidentified Male - Youngton over to Dobbs. Dobbs back to Drummer. Drummer inside from 10 feet, puts it away.

Sam Drummer, former basketball player - I try to remember the good memories. I try not to remember the bad memories because then that only puts me down. And I don't need to be down. I have enough of that already because mainly I'm not where I really want to be.

Jeremy Schaap, ESPN correspondent - The Muncie, Indiana, police say that 38-year-old Sammy Drummer was shot to death in the early morning of February 4, 1995, in a botched attempt to purchase crack. But in many ways, the Sammy Drummer of local legend, the Sammy Drummer who could pick change off the top of backboards, had already been dead for years.

Morry Mannies, Muncie Radio Announcer - Basketball was Sam Drummer's life. That's what people knew him for. That's where he got his reputation, because he was a great basketball player. And when that's taken away, what is there?

Schaap - For Sammy Drummer, there wasn't much except frustration, disappointment, and the words that always hovered after his playing days ended, "what might have been."

Dick Minniear, Drummer's friend - There would be kids out there watching him shoot and then come and ask for his autograph. I never saw so many kids from away schools come up to him or even when we played at home and ask for his autograph after the game.

Ron Lemasters, retired Sportswriter, "Muncie Star" - People from the other team, they would just kind of stand around on the floor and watch Sam warm up and with the slam dunks and just the smooth, graceful manner that he had on the floor and just to watch him jump.

Gawen Wells, Drummer's industrial league teammate and Bonzi Wells' father - He was the ultimate ball player as far as his body. You know, you look at a guy's body, and you say, "Oh, man, he can play basketball."

Schaap - After moving with his family from Mississippi to Muncie as a 10-year-old, Drummer quickly became a star on the local playgrounds.

Myron W. Dickerson, Drummer's high school coach - He could jump out of the gym. That was back before the dunk was alLowed. And there would be times when the kids would beg me to let him dunk the basketball if we were 20, 30 points ahead. Even though it called for a tech, he would do that once in a while.

Mannies - He just seemed to continue to go up. And then you could put a stopwatch on him, the amount of time he seemed to be suspended in the air. And I knew at that time he was going to be a special basketball player.

Schaap - Bonzi Wells of the Portland Trailblazers grew up in Muncie, where even today Drummer's playground acrobatics are the stuff of legend.

Bonzi Wells, Trail Blazers guard - I'm hearing stories about Sam Drummer touching the top of the backboard and snatching money off of it. I mean, you might think somebody's just saying that to ad lib a little bit. But I saw him jump. And he's one of the best high risers I ever saw in my life.

Schaap - In 1975, as a senior at Muncie Northside, the six-foot-five forward led the Titans to the state semifinals. Voted the fourth best prep player in the U.S. by the "Louisville Courier Journal," Drummer was sought after by dozens of major programs, including Bob Knight's Hoosiers. Ball State in Muncie wanted him desperately.

Mannies - The local businessmen got together a campaign to get Sam Drummer at Ball State. And I'm not sure where the money came from, but had a poster published, "Wanted - Sam Drummer for Muncie and Ball State University."

Schaap - The big schools all knocked at his door too. But Roger Banks, the most aggressive suitor representing tiny Gardner-Webb, knocked the loudest.

Minniear - And then there was, all of a sudden there was a Camaro that came on the scene. And I asked him about it.

And, of course, he felt -- he was cornered. I know he was cornered. And so he didn't really -- I don't think he really told me the truth. But that was the beginning of the end for him I felt.

Warren Vander Hill, Muncie basketball historian - What he did was leave this whole community kind of shaking their heads about why he didn't take other more wise advise and try to either at that point go to a junior college and maybe transfer into a Big 10 school or a larger Division One program rather than going down south to a place like Gardner-Webb.

Schaap - Drummer signed with Gardner-Webb, then an NAIA school in Boiling Springs, North Carolina. But before he ever played a game at Gardner-Webb, Roger Banks was hired at Austin Peay. And Drummer followed him there.

Then Banks moved to Georgia Tech. And so did Drummer.

Dickerson - And to this day, I still believe if he had stuck with IU, he would have probably played professional basketball because there wasn't anything promised under the table. I mean, here's what we're going to give you. We're going to give you an education.

Schaap - Even after two seasons at Georgia Tech, Drummer was barely literate. When the Houston Rockets drafted him in the fourth round in 1979, he thought he'd have little need for books. But Houston released him during training camp.

G. Wells - He fell short because maybe he couldn't dribble the ball. He could jump, do all these other things. But you go to the next level, you can be the same size, but you've got to be able to dribble that ball. I think that was the only flaw Sam had.

Schaap - Drummer signed with the Harlem Globetrotters. But they released him after one year when he was arrested and imprisoned on drug charges in Brazil.

Drummer spent years trying to get back into the game. But no one wanted him.

Minniear - People had seen where he'd been and who he'd been with and think, "OK, do we really want to take the time to work through this process? Or are there 50 more people out there?" And he didn't get the chance.

Schaap - In May, 1984, Sammy Drummer came home to Muncie. Ball State, the school whose scholarship offer he had once rejected, hired him as a janitor.

Among the duties, sweeping the floor of this gym where the Cardinals then played.

Vander Hill - I would often say to people as kind of a local story, it's 4 -00 in the afternoon during the basketball season at Ball State. And the men's basketball team is out on the floor practicing. And so I'd say to people, "Who's the best player in the gym?"

And they would pause and reflect and say, "Well, it's player A or player B or player C" on the Ball State men's varsity. And I'd look at them with a smile and say, "No, the best player in the gym is Sam Drummer."

B. Wells - For a guy to go from where he went to, I mean, his status, in Muncie, he was a God. You know, Sam Drummer this, Sam Drummer that.

Lemasters - He was part celebrity and part tragic figure from the standpoint of the untapped potential. I think people would see him around Ball State. They'd say, "Hi, Sam. How are you doing?" And they would walk away kind of shaking their heads, saying, "Man, he ought to be playing basketball somewhere." But...

Mannies - I really miss seeing Sam Drummer in the gym. I just wish I could have seen him with a basketball in his hand rather than a broom.

Schaap - At the time he was murdered, Sammy Drummer had been working at Ball State for 11 years. He was shot in the shadows of the projects where he grew up within shouting distance of the playground where his legend was born.

Dickerson - I told him that, "If they can buy you, then they can sell you too. If you sell your soul to them, why, they'll be able to sell you right down the drain."

Mannies - I think the wrong crowd got involved. And they used Sam Drummer. I think that was the thing that was such a tragic thing.

Schaap - The schools that had used him from high school through college never gave him the education he needed.

Drummer - I think the only thing that they was saying at that period in time was basketball. And me, knowing, thinking, feeling that, hey, I don't need it. I'm going to play professional ball. Now I look back on that. Man, it just hurts.

Ley - Next, splashed across headlines every week, the dark side of sports as reported by Outside The Lines - 10 Years Later.

Kevin Karlander, former captain, University of Vermont hockey team - I feel as though I came out of it as much of a winner as you can in a situation where there are no winners.

Judith Ramaley, President, University of Vermont - It is with deep regret that I inform you of our decision. We are terminating the 1999-2000 UVM ice hockey season effective immediately.

Ley - The impact of a hazing scandal at the University of Vermont continues to echo far beyond that state. As Outside The Lines reported back in April, hazing charges by freshman goalie Corey LaTulippe led to the midseason cancellation of Vermont's hockey season and also sparked a national examination of that age-old practice.

LaTulippe sued in federal court after a night of preseason initiation rights for freshman players. You should know that what follows is a graphic description of what he alleged occurred that night at the rented home of then-team captain Kevin Karlander.

Linda Murtie, Vermont Anti-hazing activist - The players were asked to shave their genitals and wear a thong that they had gotten from a female freshman. After they got there, they were -- I guess they had to eat things like some kind of a fish pie until they vomited.

They had to do pushups naked and have their genitals dipped in a glass of beer. And if you didn't do enough of them, you had to drink the guy next to you, his glass of beer.

There was an elephant walk involved, which in that the players, the freshmen, had to stand up and kind of hold on to each other's genitals as the way an elephant would walk along.

Ley - Ten days later, LaTulippe, one of four goalies, was told he would not see any playing time. He left school and filed suit, seeking $350,000 in damages.

The school investigated the matter and later said that several players had lied about the incident. The administration canceled the remainder of the hockey season. A separate state inquiry later criticized the school's handling of the matter and called for new anti-hazing laws.

William Sorrell, Vermont attorney general - So as of July 1 of 2000, Vermont has a law against it. It's a civil penalty. You can't go to jail. But the fines range from hazing at the grade school level of a few hundred dollars up to a couple of thousand dollars if it's at the college level or above.

David Nestor, Vice President of Academic Affairs, University of Vermont - It's one thing for students to hear that there's a university policy that they may be in violation of. It's another thing to hear there's both a university policy and a state law.

Ley - The story took a twist in May when LaTulippe in a deposition retracted parts of the story, including his charge that he was cut from the team because of the hazing allegations. LaTulippe also said he had engaged in hazing type activities while in high school. LaTulippe and the school settled the lawsuit for $80,000. And he settled suits against former teammates, including Karlander, for far less. Karlander now plays for the minor league Louisiana Ice Skaters.

Karlander - I guess it was blown way out of proportion. Every hockey player knows the names of things that we did that night, like we didn't come up with any of them. They came from other hockey teams. And they were brought in from other players. And it's all part of the hockey world.

I couldn't tell you how many people have come up to me and told me, "Oh, that's nothing. You wouldn't believe what we did in our fraternity."

Nestor - The reaction that Kevin voiced over the course of the year was one where we were not successful in getting through to him the seriousness of what had occurred.

Ley - LaTulippe told ESPN he intends to resume his hockey career at a different college, but declined to speak on camera. Karlander says he settled LaTulippe's lawsuit primarily for financial reasons.

Karlander - If I had an endless pocket, I would have kept fighting. I feel as though I came out of it as much of a winner as you can in a situation where there are no winners.

Sorrell - I think the winners are the young kids who aspire to play college sports and won't go through what they otherwise would have gone through to become members of their teams.

Ley - Vermont now works to prevent hazing with workshops and requiring athletes to sign contracts, pledging they will not haze, nor condone it. And hazing cases are handled differently now.

Eric Green, news anchor - Good evening. I'm Eric Green. The big story at 6 -00 is hazing at UVM, this time with the men's soccer team.

Ley - This fall, the men's soccer team was involved in hazing charges over an incident that occurred before the hockey hazing.

Nestor - I think the key thing in our response to the soccer incident was immediately turning it over to the police for an investigation and letting them do the work that they're best cut out to do.

Ley - Vermont suspended five soccer players for one game and said that all five cooperated with the investigation.

This fall, Vermont's hockey program resumed, restored to its usual position as the biggest game in the state. But debate continues over the legacy of Corey LaTulippe, who never played a single minute for Vermont.

Sorrell - I think he'll be known for a Long time in the eyes of some as a hero, but in the eyes of a number of people as somebody who wasn't good enough to make the team. And sour grapes, he took everybody else down with him.

Nestor - What happened to Corey LaTulippe should never have happened and shouldn't happen to anyone again.

Karlander - There were freshmen who decided not to do some things that night. I mean, they all had their opportunity to say no. We had meetings in the locker room that day saying if you didn't want to come, you didn't have to be there.

Sorrell - I would agree with Karlander that there were no explicit threats to -- forcing people to be there or to participate. But I would disagree with him strongly on the implicit suggestions.

Karlander - We made fun of the word hazing like it was a joke. Now it's something very serious apparently that now needs strict definition.

Ley - Over the past decade, Outside The Lines has examined sports' most volatile issues and personalities. And next, a teen athlete brought out of his hometown because of who he is.

Greg Congdon, former high school athlete - If you don't believe what the majority wants you to believe, you're going to pay the price. And they're going to make sure you pay the price.

Unidentified Male - You paid a price?

Congdon - I paid a big price.

The Rock, professional wrestler - Do you smell what The Rock is cooking?

Ley - Since Outside The Lines' last report on pro wrestling in 1999, the World Wrestling Federation has lost several major sponsors. Coca-Cola, Con Agra Foods (ph), and MCI Worldcom are among the companies who pulled their ads from the program "Smackdown." But WWF Chairman Vince McMahon continues to expand his entertainment empire.

Unidentified Male - The extreme training has begun. On February 3, Smash Mouth Football returns, the XFL, NBC, February.

Ley - Coming soon, the pro football league with WWF attitude, the XFL. McMahon calls it the Extra Fun League. The XFL is a $100 million startup owned jointly by McMahon and NBC. The football and the attitude debuts in early February.

Congdon - I lost everything here.

Ley - So when you go to college, will that be it for this town for you?

Congdon - Yeah. It's going to be that once I leave, I'm never coming back.

Ley - In 1998, Greg Congdon, living in a small town, had been exposed as a gay athlete, ridiculed, and eventually driven from his high school football team.

Congdon - The thing that hurt me the most was seeing all my friends that used to be my friends sit there huddled up in a corner talking about me, looking over at me, laughing and stuff. I took 33 Tylenol and went to bed, got up the next morning and took 10 more. I was upset that I even woke up.

Ley - Two years after telling his story to Outside The Lines, Congdon has done what he vowed never to do, return to his hometown of Troy, Pennsylvania.

Congdon - I have nothing against Troy. I don't feel any hatred or dislike towards anyone.

Ley - He attended college in Pennsylvania for one year and now works in a supermarket in nearby Elmira, New York. Congdon's ordeal led him on a journey of self discovery so that he is no Longer a victim, but an activist.

Congdon - I do a lot of one-of-one with other gay teens that are in trouble. I had this one kid from Texas who wrote in that he is gay. But no one knows he's gay. But he'd been beaten up because they just think he is. And no one is doing anything about it.

I just said, "Look, I survived. You've just got to stick it out and fight."

Ley - Although he has distanced himself from high school friends and teammates, Congdon still returns to his high school field to watch the team play, not so much Longing for lost friendships, but accepting the changes in his life.

Congdon - I always look back over all the things that have happened. They say the past is what makes us who we are today. And I totally believe that.

Ley - Congdon has a lawsuit pending against Troy Hospital for breach of confidentiality, alleging that an employee released medical information that revealed he was gay.

Congdon - No one had known, not even my parents, that I was gay. I had never told anyone. If you don't believe what the majority wants you to believe, you're going to pay the price. I paid a big price.

A lot of times I ask myself, "Why me?" I can never find an answer to that question, though. And maybe someday I will find the answer to that question. But today, I don't know it.

Ley - Next Outside The Lines, the difficult choices and value judgments in sports, including the story of an NBA star who gave up his career for his faith.

Mahmoud Abdul-Rauf, Nuggets guard - They had a hands-off approach to me. Nobody wanted to touch me. And I felt that it was unjustified. And I was just tired of it. And I said, "Well, let me just leave."

M. Abdul-Rauf - The word Islam, it has the connotation of peace. But it also means to surrender. We surrender our whole being to who we consider the one God, Allah, wholeheartedly, with everything.

Kelly Neal, ESPN correspondent - In 1995, Outside the Lines looked at religion and sports, how athletes balance their personal faith with their professional careers. One of the players profiled was Mahmoud Abdul-Rauf, formerly Chris Jackson, taken by the Nuggets as the third pick in the 1990 NBA draft.

Since the show aired, Abdul-Rauf has been on a basketball odyssey, which began when he refused to stand and face the American flag during the National Anthem.

M. Abdul-Rauf - It's a symbol of oppression, of tyranny. So it depends on how you look at it. I think this country has a Long history of that.

If people I think would have only listened to all of what I said and not just the tyranny and oppression side, they would have found that the statement was logical because I did make the statement that as Muslim, or as a human being, that wherever there is bad, we don't stand for it.

Neal - It was March of '96 when Abdul-Rauf was suspended for one game by the NBA for his refusal to stand for the anthem. After consulting with a leader in the Islamic community, he resolved his conflict by praying to Allah while facing the flag. But the damage to his image was already done.

M. Abdul-Rauf - Even driving through Denver, you had certain people that would flip me off in the car passing by. I would ignore it.

Neal - After that season, Denver traded Abdul-Rauf, despite the fact that he was its leading scorer the past four years. But after just two seasons in Sacramento, he decided to quit the NBA.

M. Abdul-Rauf - I left the NBA because I started to lose the desire and enthusiasm to play, but also of what was happening, especially after the anthem. It seemed like my career was just going downhill.

I couldn't get any playing time. They had a hands-off approach to me. Nobody wanted to touch me. And I felt that it was unjustified. And I was just tired of it.

Neal - Abdul-Rauf decided to play basketball abroad. But after just three months playing with a professional team in Turkey, he decided to quit basketball altogether and return home to Gulfport, Mississippi, to start an Islamic community.

He became an imam, the community's religious leader, and bought a house for his flock of 40 to worship in. He also started construction on a home in nearby Hancock County.

But last spring, some residents showed they weren't happy with the prospect of Abdul-Rauf, his wife, and two children moving in.

April Abdul-Rauf, Mahmoud's wife - We pulled up to the house one day to kind of see where the contractor was in terms of construction, and it had KKK spray painted across it. OK, shortly after that, somebody took their truck and knocked down the structure of the garage.

We're thinking they're stupid little kids, somebody just didn't know any better. But we found out later on there was like some adults who just didn't want us out there.

And after that, the contractor got death threats. They went to his home and messed up his brand new Navigator. They spray painted on his shed. They went to his office and spray painted KKK. Our contractor is white.

Neal - Neither Abdul-Rauf or local police were able to identify who the vandals were. When Abdul-Rauf got word when his home was rumored to be vandalized again, members of his Islamic community gathered and helped him defend his property.

M. Abdul-Rauf - So we were able to come there the day before or that night and just hang out to see if they were going to show up. And it subsided.

Neal - Three months after that incident, Abdul-Rauf caught the attention of a Vancouver scout after playing in a charity basketball game. After a two-year layoff from professional basketball, he opted to try again and signed with the Grizzlies for one season.

But additional rumors that their house would be burned down when it was finished caused Abdul-Rauf to put it up for sale. He says he'll build another house in Mississippi closer to Gulfport and that he holds no racial animosity towards those who prevented his family from ever feeling safe in their new home.

M. Abdul-Rauf - Islam has given me a balance. There is a verse that says, "He did not create different languages and different tribes or nations of people so that you would despise one another. But he did it so that you would know one another. And the noblest of you in the sight of Allah is he that is most righteous or God-conscious."

So there is no -- racist beliefs in Islam is not tolerated because we've all been created from the same entity, so to speak. And so we look at each other as human beings, not as different colors.

Neal - Abdul-Rauf's return to the NBA was helped by having a fellow Muslim, Shareef Abdur-Rahim, as a teammate.

Shareef Abdur-Rahim, Grizzlies forward - Now we pray together after games. Or we ride together back and forth to practice. We sit with each other on the plane.

But I think a lot of things for him is just his character. I think the way he conducts himself is the best example.

M. Abdul-Rauf - We vibe off of each other and share our experiences and our thoughts on different things.

Grant Long, Grizzlies forward - You want to look across the room, and you want to see somebody like you or does what you do. And for Shareef, that person is Mahmoud. So that helps you. It may not help you right away. But it helps you as far as a confidence level. Hopefully, that will translate on the basketball court for us with Shareef and Mahmoud.

Neal - Do you think his religion has softened him as a player?

Sidney Lowe, Grizzlies head coach - I don't know. I don't know. He was much more aggressive before. And right now, he's a little passive.

I mean, that's a hard thing to do, to sit out for a couple of years and then come back and play in this league. Players are quicker. Players are stronger. Players are smarter. They're bigger. So that's a huge adjustment for him to make.

Neal - He's also made adjustments off the court to better accommodate basketball with Islam. Abdul-Rauf no Longer showers apart from teammates to avoid being seen nude, a Muslim practice. He now just faces the wall.

And he no Longer misses pre-game meetings in order to say the day's fourth mandatory prayer. He now postpones that prayer until after the game.

M. Abdul-Rauf - I'm not looking to be a star like I used to or looking to play a lot of minutes. Whatever is going to be good for the team, whether it's sacrificing my shots or coming off looking to score, that's what I'm willing to do.

I will still be content with who I am. I will never lose my confidence. I will still be a Muslim. I will still worship my creator and try to grow.

My thing is everything I do, I try to do it to please the Almighty. So whether I start, whether I play or don't, I'm successful.

Ley - As we continue Outside The Lines, the combustibility in sports, both in relationships and in the games people play.

Donna Lopiano, executive director, Women's Sports Foundation - Girls are still being shortchanged compared to boys. We've literally come halfway to where we should be 28 years after the passage of the law.

Unidentified Male - Do you think these kids will make $1 million?

Richard Williams, Venus and Serena Williams' father - There's no question about it. They'll make $1 million look small.

Ley - That seemed an extravagant prediction by Richard Williams speaking with Outside The Lines eight years ago. But Venus and Serena Williams have more than delivered on their father's boast. They combined to win six singles titles in 2000, including the U.S. Open and Wimbledon with career earnings totaling more than $7 million and countless additional millions in endorsement income.

Ley - That sort of money shows the explosion in women's sports. Since Outside The Lines examined women's sports three years ago, their prominence has continued to mushroom, especially in the WNBA.

Though that league now confronts two straight years of declining attendance, Kelly Neal reports it is succeeding at its other mission, providing role models and opportunities to younger athletes.

Val Ackerman, WNBA President - I think "Love and Basketball" is truly a sign of the times movie. Not only does it have as one of its focal points a woman basketball player, but in the end she truly is the heroine. It's an image of women, and frankly of African American women, that I think is somewhat new.

Renee Taylor, sophomore, Bishop Loughlin Memorial High School - Now I have somewhere to go when I get out of college, like to go to the league.

Cori Chambers, sophomore, Ursuline High School - I'd love to play in the WNBA. But it's not my first and number one goal. I want to go to college, get a degree. And then if somebody offers me to play in the WNBA, fine, that's cool. I'll be making money and having fun too.

Neal - Fifteen-year-old Cori Chambers was awarded honorable mention in this year's "Street and Smith's" ranking of high school basketball players and will no doubt attract the attention of college recruiters.

For Rebecca Richman, a senior center at Brooklyn Tech, that time has come and gone. Ranked as one of the country's top 30 female high school players, Richman got a taste of what male athletes are accustomed to. Nearly 20 colleges came calling.

Rebecca Richman, senior, Brooklyn Technical High School - It was flattering. It was a lot of fun talking to different coaches from all across the country and stuff like that. But you get 10 messages a night, it was hard.

C. Vivian Stringer, Rutgers head basketball coach - She's a very special young lady. And she's very sincere. She's extremely bright, hardworking, has her mind really focused.

Richman - And Rutgers has had everything I was looking for in a team, the coaches. It was like the best group of girls that I could see myself being with for four years and learning a lot from.

Stringer - I just want to do everything in my power to see to it that all of her dreams come true and that she can be fulfilled.

Neal - Richman played in the six-year-old SlamJam Women's Basketball Classic, a New York City league that has become a top recruiting ground for female high school players.

Richman and her peers represent something that was virtually unobtainable for female athletes a generation ago.

Chambers - My mom told me that when she was growing up that there wasn't that many opportunities for girls to play in high school, so she thinks that I'm really lucky.

Stringer - I didn't even have a high school basketball team. I actually tried out for the cheerleading squad and was selected. But my only reason is because I just wanted to have an opportunity to be close to the court.

Ackerman - When I attended the University of Virginia in the late '70s, at that time there was one scholarship that was available to the women's basketball team. And I had half of it. A teammate had the other half.

I had tuition and fees. And she had room and board. So I went to class, and she got to eat. And now every member of that team gets a full scholarship.

Lopiano - At the college level, you're looking at female athletes in 1972 getting less than $10,000 total in athletic scholarships. Today, that figure is about $160 million each year.

Neal - The driving force behind women's progress in leveling the playing field has been Title IX, the 1972 law that compelled schools and universities to devote resources to women's athletics.

Lopiano - There were lots of dinosaur athletic directors in the early '70s who grew up believing that girls weren't as interested in sports, that nobody would come and watch. Fortunately, women athletes have proved dinosaurs wrong.

Neal - As schools spend more money on women's athletics, advocates for men's teams insist that Title IX is making their athletic programs suffer. These opponents point to the more than 50 Division One college wrestling programs that have been dropped in the past two decades to make way for various women's teams.

Stringer - What's happening is as they cut into those same dollars, they begin to eliminate some of the men's sports. Well, that causes a heck of a mess.

Lopiano - The fault really lies with athletic administrators who, when Title IX was passed, refused to hold the line on expenditures on men's sports while women's sports was brought up to snuff. We've literally come halfway to where we should be 28 years after the passage of the law.

Neal - In fact, women's advocates insist that 80 percent of America's colleges and universities are not yet in full compliance with Title IX. The disparities also continue to exist on the professional level.

Clyde Frazier, Jr., Commissioner, SlamJam Women's Basketball Classic - Women's basketball still has a Long way to go. The WNBA play in the same arenas that the men's teams play in. And the salary is nowhere near what men are making. So when women play for the WNBA, the average salary is probably something like, maybe, I don't know, $30,000, $40,000.

Neal - Although progress is not coming as fast as some would like, Rebecca Richman and her generation can now step on the court with confidence.

Richman - So I just want to focus on improving and getting the best out of my game that I can. But there are other things that have equal importance. College is going to be my main thing. That's like the most important thing, to have a degree.

Ley - Outside The Lines - 10 Years Later, the people who proved that victory in life is more than a final score.

Leann Montes, college basketball player - You should not only have a goal, but you should have dreams also to help you find what you really want. And once you have it, you're going to be extremely happy.

Unidentified Male - Here's Montes to the right side. She'll pull up from 18, got it.

Ley - In 1999, Outside The Lines profiled Leann Montes, a Chippewa Cree from the Rocky Boy Reservation in Montana. Montes had left the reservation for the University of Montana as a walk-on with the Lady Grizzlies basketball team.

Since Montes was living in a dorm, she was forced to leave her 2-year-old daughter Dominique on the reservation to be raised by her parents.

Montes - It's not that I wouldn't like staying on the res with her. You just know you have to do something. That's how I felt about going to college.

Ley - Now a sophomore, Montes says she's made a remarkably smooth transition to college life.

Montes - I've grown so much the last past year just moving off the reservation and just being open to new experiences and people and their backgrounds. And showing them the maya (ph) has just been awesome.

Shannon Schweyen, assistant basketball coach, University of Montana - She's really come out of her shell this last year and just seems to be very comfortable with our team and the coaches and the atmosphere here at college.

Ley - Perhaps the most important factor for Montes was receiving a full basketball scholarship this fall. The additional money helped her rent an apartment for her and her daughter.

Simarron Schildt, University of Montana forward - She balances everything so well. You know, she has a kid and school and a job. And it amazes me at how well she does with everything.

Schweyen - I have a child of my own right now. And Leann's story is absolutely amazing to me to have a child and raise a child at that age and have all the responsibilities as a parent, a college athlete, a college student.

Montes - I have a lot of family members down here and friends that support me and help me with Dominique and my schoolwork.

Ley - Montes is coming off the bench, getting more playing time than her freshman season.

Robin Selvig, head basketball coach, University of Montana - She picked them up quickly in terms of learning what we expected and what to do. And she's competing for a lot of playing time and is going to be a very important part of our team this year.

Ley - Most Native Americans cannot adjust to life off the reservation. They return home without a degree. Montes has found her place in a school where Native Americans comprise just over three percent of the student body.

Montes - When I first got here, I went to a Native American meeting for an EOP program. And there was only about 10 Native Americans. And I was like, "What?" And the director that worked there was like, "Oh, last year we had about five. It's just exciting to see a lot more Native Americans coming to college here."

Schildt - She has a real inner strength about her. And it's very quiet. But she's a very powerful person. And I think anything she tries to accomplish, she will.

Schweyen - I can't imagine any young Native American kid growing up not thinking that Leann is something to aspire to. Any kid that folLowed our basketball team would look at Leann and just be amazed at what she's done.

Montes - I've pretty much got my dream living with my daughter, my own apartment, playing college ball. Right here is my dream.

Ley - When we first met triathlete David Lindsey in 1994, he was attempting to come back from a boating accident that cost him both legs. Prosthetic legs became too painful for Lindsey to use. And so he gave them up. It was a hard decision. And it proved to be fateful.

David Lindsey, Triathlete - I found a whole new world waiting for me in that racing chair that really opened up more fun and more competitiveness in many ways for me.

Ley - Since our original story, Lindsey won the 1996 Iron Man and the International Distance World Championship. Now he's making another transition.

Lindsey - I have to go to a hand crank. And that brings a whole new freedom to my life. And I can actually bike faster in it than I could in my regular bike.

When it comes to racing chairs and hand cranks, as far as I'm concerned, put Michael Jordan in one. I don't care. I'll compete against anybody that wants to compete.

Ley - Lindsey feels his athletic career and spirit has redefined his life.

Lindsey - I don't look at myself as being handicapped. I have more freedom than most people ever thought of having. And I compete harder and at higher level than most professional athletes do around the world.

Ley - The games are global now. And when we continue Outside The Lines, a new nation adopts our national pastime.

Pavel Gladikov, Spartak manager - We're able to pitch very good. He can throw maybe 86, 88 speed.

Ley - Welcome to Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, a city that most Americans and many Vietnamese still know as Saigon.

Ley - In February of 1998, Outside The Lines visited Vietnam for several weeks investigating labor practices and working conditions in factories where American sneakers were manufactured. Working under the press restrictions of a communist government, we nonetheless encountered a warm people eager to embrace Americans and most anxious for foreign investment.

In the factory that produced Nike and Reebok shoes, we found questions of environmental dangers and salaries for workers, whose pay was reduced by their employers using outdated currency exchange rates.

In the nearly three years since our visit, much has happened. Nguyen Thi Lieu was a 22-year-old worker in Reebok's Powyen factory. She lived in an eight-by-twelve-foot room with a tin roof and dirt floor, commuting six days a week by bicycle to her job, where she applied glue.

Nguyen Thi Lieu, former Reebok factory worker (through translator) - We are sick all the time from inhaling the poison from the glue. There are many other workers that suffer from pain in their noses just like me.

Ley - After our report aired, Lieu's contract was terminated by Reebok. ESPN brought the matter to the attention of Reebok's Massachusetts headquarters, and Lieu was rehired and assigned a better job, one that she liked.

Last spring, Lieu was let go again with 3,000 other workers when their contracts expired so they could be replaced by minimum wage workers, a common practice. In August, we found Lieu had moved to an even smaller rented room and now makes her living selling lottery tickets in a Ho Chi Minh City marketplace.

When Outside The Lines met Nguyen Thi Lap, she was a senior worker with an exemplary history at Nike's Samyang plant in Ku Chi. Once we left the country, Lap's life spiraled downhill.

Nike said Lap's poor job performance was to blame. Lap disagreed.

Unidentified Female - You said that you were forced to do this after you came back from the interview?

Nguyen Thi Lap, former Nike factory worker (through translator) - When I found the team, I went to the interview. When I went to the interview, the Korean manager kept suggesting to me that as an employee of the company I always had to speak well for the company and say that the company was having difficulty.

Ley - Those so-called problems included the media scrutiny of overseas labor practices of American shoe companies. Nike Chairman Phil Knight alluded to the negative reports at an address at the National Press Club in Washington, DC.

Knight spoke in May of 1998, one month after our program aired.

Phil Knight, CEO, Nike - One columnist said, "Nike represents not only everything that's wrong with sports, but everything that's wrong with the world." So I figured that I'd just come out and let you journalists have a look at the great Satan up close and personal.

Lap - Let me tell you, I was a section leader overseeing 50 workers. They forced me to quit if I didn't agree to be switched around between menial jobs.

My hands were often swollen up so painful. Because they abused me too much, I brought this to the union to be solved for me.

Ley - Following our visit, Lap was demoted several times. When she fell ill, she says she was denied medical leave, eventually forced to quit her job, and then diagnosed with tuberculosis. Lap is currently unemployed.

As for Nike's view of those who criticize its labor policies, early in 1999, a senior Nike figure in a letter to Vietnam's top labor official said that Nike believed human rights activists were trying to indirectly overthrow the communist government of Vietnam.

When we visited Russia five years after communism fell there, we found a dominant sporting nation coping with democracy, capitalism, and baseball. At one of Moscow's two diamonds, located incredibly on a Red Army missile base, the right field fence was a camouflage tarp. But we also found dreams of the major leagues, dreams that endure even today.

Oleg Korneev, Spartak pitcher (through translator) - One's goal is to play here. I mean, this is the ultimate place to play baseball and to succeed.

Greg Pines, assistant coach, Mariners scout team - I was really surprised. I didn't know that they had baseball in Russia. But it looks like they've been playing for a while at least.

Ley - And they even know about barnstorming. Spartak, one of only a handful of teams in Moscow, played their way through the U.S. southwest recently in a series of games against American minor league prospects. The Russians' goal, to catch the eyes of Major League scouts.

John Lehr, consultant, Russian Baseball Federation - There already is a generation of second pedigree arising. The pitcher behind us is the son of Lunya Korneev, who was a gold medal winner in the Olympics in team handball. And it's his son Oleg who now seems to bring a few scouts out to the games here when they travel in America.

Gladikov - He's a very good pitcher, very good. He can throw maybe 86, 88 speed. I think he got very, very big future.

Derek Valenzuela, Mariners scout - There might be a D-and-F, a draft-and-fall type player where we would draft him, have him under control, have him go to a junior college where they could team him how to pitch.

Korneev (through translator) - We're used to having scouts. We've sort of this whole season -- we've had a lot of scouts come by and look at us.

Bob Protexter, scouted Soviet Union for Angels - Oleg Korneev is Russia's frontline baseball product because he's six-seven. He's 215 pounds. And by spring, more than likely he'll be throwing 90. If that happens, he'll sign a professional baseball contract.

Ley - When we visited Moscow, three Russians had already signed U.S. minor league contracts. In the four years since, that number tripled though all the Russian prospects have been released.

Alex Tarapov was a class A rookie league pitcher for the Dodgers until he suffered an elbow injury. He wants to come back as a pitcher, but he's currently playing center field.

Valenzuela - I see some raw power, big hit, and then the center fielder, he's got some juice in his bat. Maybe a chance to maybe hit for some power at the minor league level.

Ley - Once baseball became an Olympic sport, the Soviet Union Sports Federation formed a national team. That was in the late 1980s. But shortly thereafter, the Soviet Union dissolved, and with it government funding for baseball.

Protexter - It's just killing the kids' programs. Quality coaching is tough. The best coaches don't always coach baseball because there's no money in it.

Pines - They look real stiff with their swings and as far as fundamentals going for fly balls. And their throwing technique is a little bit off.

Ley - Spartak capped their U.S. adventure with a tour of Edison Field, home of the Anaheim Angels.

Korneev (through translator) - You have all of this. And we only have two fields in Moscow. And that's all we have. So we just don't have the opportunities of the vastness of the experience. If we did that, then we would be one hell of a team.

Gladikov (through translator) - All of the boys' dreams here are to go higher with baseball. They'd be able to earn more money. And also with the publicity, from their experience, it goes full circle. And they would be able to bring it back to Russia and help to train others and share their experience.

Protexter - Scouts need to project these Russian kids a little bit further out than they do with American kids. They love their body type. They love the way they go at it hard nose. They just always cite experience.

You know, you're looking at Russia. Baseball started in 1987. There's not the experience level there. So they need to push them ahead a few steps further than they will the American kids.

Korneev - I want to pitch for New York Yankees' team.

Korneev (through translator) - If I just play out of love and passion, then of course money will eventually fall from the sky.

Unidentified Males - Spartak Major League Baseball.

Ley - Four years ago, Russian baseball players were eagerly trading their precious months-old videotapes of distant Major League games. Now they're talking like free agents.

But they started with a love of this game. And they must balance that now with the real world challenges in their sport.

And that as much as anything is what we've been examining in the last decade. For all the men and women who have worked to bring you those stories and issues Outside The Lines, I'm Bob Ley.

Thanks for being here these 10 years. We're just getting started.


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