Diego Simeone will be frustrated that his team walked away with just a point as they dominated for large swathes of the game.
Both sides created chances in the second half in the search for a winner but didn't manage to convert any of them.
Ronald Araujo did have the ball in the net on 69 minutes but he was well offside and it was ruled out.
The result means Atletico remain at the top of the table while Barca jump into second place. Real Madrid, who are third, face fourth-placed Sevilla on Sunday. A win would see them go top of the table.
"We're still in the mix. La Liga's still wide open, three games is a lot even if we know it's not in our hands anymore," Barca defender Gerard Pique said.
"Anything can happen. I'd like to know if any other side in La Liga has won four in a row, it's only something we've done.
"If we win our remaining three matches, I think we'll win the league. We're going to fight until the end, even if we haven't done what we needed."